1. At Kananaskis in 2002 the G8 adopted an Africa Action Plan (AAP) in response to the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). The G8 shares the fundamental objectives of NEPAD. The Africa Action Plan sets out how each of the G8 partners, together or individually, will enhance their engagement with African countries in support of NEPAD. The G8 agreed to review, at their next Summit, progress made in the implementation of the commitments they made in the Africa Action Plan. The following implementation report illustrates the thrust of the G8 response and outlines efforts for implementation in the next years.
I. General remarks
2. In the Africa Action Plan, G8 partners reaffirmed a broad partnership with countries throughout Africa based on the commitments of G8 members to address core issues of human dignity and development. They also undertook to enter into enhanced partnerships with African countries whose performance reflects the NEPAD commitments, including a political and financial commitment to good governance and the rule of law, investing in their people, and pursuing policies that spur economic growth and alleviate poverty. They stated that the results of the African peer-review process would inform their future decisions in this regard.
3. NEPAD presents a bold and clear-sighted African vision of how Africa is assuming responsibility for its development and full integration into the world economy. The G8 countries encourage and support this important endeavour and therefore fully commit themselves to strengthening their partnership with Africa. The United Nations and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development have adopted NEPAD as the basis upon which to build future relations with Africa. We particularly welcome the UN General Assembly resolution adopting NEPAD as the general framework around which the international community including the United Nations system (A/RES/57/2) should concentrate its efforts for Africa's development.
4. NEPAD and the Africa Action Plan are interlinked; progress in the implementation of one stands to improve the prospects for the other. Partnership based on African priorities is replacing assistance based on donor assumption of Africa's requirements. This process is beginning to deliver results.
5. We welcome the important progress made by African partners in acting upon the values and principles contained in NEPAD, for example:
- in launching the African Union, which underscores the will of African Leaders to assume joint responsibility for democracy, human rights, peace and stability, and good governance throughout the continent;
- in achieving and consolidating an end to armed conflicts in Angola, between Eritrea and Ethiopia, and in Sierra Leone; in making progress in peace processes in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Sudan; and in working together, with the support of ECOWAS, in helping the return to political stability in Côte d'Ivoire;
- in consolidating democracy through the holding of free and fair elections in a number of African countries;
- in adopting the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) which gives powerful expression to the acknowledgement in NEPAD that sound political, economic and corporate governance is integral to sustainable development in Africa. Fifteen African countries have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to accede to the APRM process as of 31 May 2003. The entry-into-operation of the APRM marks a major event in the development of governance in Africa; and,
- in recognising the need to improve communication on the principles and values of NEPAD and to promote further the participation of civil society.
6. It is to be recognised, however, that the aspiration of the people of Africa to enjoy the fundamental human rights, economic opportunities and political freedoms enunciated in NEPAD is, in some instances, still being thwarted, and that the progress towards reaching the Millennium Development Goals is not sufficient in many countries.
7. For their part, each G8 partner has begun to implement programs, which reinforce the commitments, contained in the Africa Action Plan. Major initiatives are being taken in this regard, as indicated in this report which is complemented by the national reports that some G8 partners are preparing or have prepared on their implementation of the Africa Action Plan.
8. Accountability is central to NEPAD and the AAP: the accountability of African Leaders to their people and to each other as well as the determination of developed partners to match that commitment. Individually, G8 partners have begun to give practical expression to that - for example, in the decision of some G8 partners to include African participation in the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) peer-review process.
Africa is to develop in a sustainable manner, additional resources from
both domestic and external sources, public and private, will be needed.
At Monterrey in March 2002 important commitments of new development assistance
were announced. At Kananaskis, it was specified that half or more of the
new resources provided by G8 partners could go to African countries that
govern justly, invest in their own people and promote economic freedom.
By 2006, estimated additional resources stand to increase G8 development
assistance to Africa by a total of US$6 billion per year, in addition
to the three-quarters of ODA to Africa that the G8 already provides. In
2002, G8 development assistance to Africa is estimated to have reached
US$10 billion. Additional resources becoming available include in particular:
- In addition, despite a difficult budgetary background, EU member states are making progress towards achieving the commitments made in Monterrey. In particular, as far as G8 EU members are concerned:
" France, whose direct bilateral assistance to Africa was estimated €2.340 billion in 2002, has pledged to increase its ODA from 0.32% of its GDP in 2001 to 0.50% in 2007 and 0.70% in 2012 with 50% of additional aid targeting Africa; in that context ODA for Africa is expected to reach €3 billion in 2003;
" The United Kingdom has published plans showing how it will reach the announced target of £1 billion per year direct bilateral assistance to Africa by 2006, and the increase in ODA from 0.32 % of GNI in 2001 to 0.4 % in 2005/6;
" Italy has pledged to increase ODA from 0.20% of GDP in 2002 to 0.33% in 2006; and,
" Germany has pledged to increase ODA from 0.27% of GDP in 2002 to 0.33% in 2006. Roughly 33% of German ODA is allotted to Africa.
- The United States has announced the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) as a new assistance program focused on countries that demonstrate their ability to use aid effectively. The Administration's budget requests US$1.3 billion in new money for FY04, which will ramp up to US$5 billion in FY06 - roughly a 50 percent increase in current United States development assistance.
- The first instalment of the eight percent annual increase in International Assistance committed by Canada, which is intended to double Canadian ODA by 2010, was included in Canada's February 2003 budget;
has already implemented ODA amounting to around US$700 million for basic
human needs sector based on the commitment at the 2nd Tokyo International
Conference on African Development (TICAD) in 1998. Japan will hold the
TICAD III at the end of September 2003 to support NEPAD by mobilising
international resources and expanding global partnership.
10. The sections that follow provide examples of the actions that G8 partners are taking to implement the commitments contained in the Africa Action Plan and on which discussion with NEPAD partners have concentrated. These examples do not include detailed references to the following issues being addressed by the G8 at Evian, many of which will yield real benefits for Africa: famine, water, health, trade, debt, aid effectiveness, corruption and transparency and sustainable development.
Promoting peace and security
11. The G8 has actively supported African efforts to achieve and consolidate peace and security throughout Africa but particularly in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan and in other countries such as Burundi, Central African Republic and Côte d'Ivoire. We are committed to continue supporting these efforts and urge the international community to improve its collective ability to support the consolidation of peace and post-conflict reconstruction in African countries emerging from armed conflict. In particular, we invite the International Financial Institutions to strengthen significantly their instruments for the consolidation of peace and post-conflict reconstruction and will work to this end in their governing bodies.
12. To develop African capacity for promoting peace and security, the following actions are representative of steps taken by the G8:
- A Joint Africa/G8 Plan to enhance African Capabilities to undertake Peace Support Operations, developed through the Berlin Process, that aims to mobilise technical and financial assistance so that, by 2010, African partners are able to engage more effectively to prevent and resolve violent conflict on the continent, and undertake peace support operations in accordance with the United Nations Charter. In this Joint Plan we recognise that the African vision for its peace and security infrastructure is a work in progress and commit to working with African partners, step by step, to develop key building blocks that will help to channel existing resources more effectively. Early building blocks that have been identified include:
" the establishment, equipping and training by 2010 of coherent, multinational, multi-disciplinary standby brigade capabilities including civilian components, at the AU and regional level, in particular integrated mission planning capability, mission field headquarters and strategic headquarters which would be available for UN-endorsed missions undertaken under the auspices of the UN, AU or an African regional organization;
" the development of capacities to provide humanitarian, security and reconstruction support in the context of complex peace support operations; and,
" the development of institutional capacities at the continental and sub-regional level to prevent conflict through mediation, facilitation, observation and other strategies.
This plan is annexed to this report and will be submitted to Leaders at Evian for endorsement.
- Substantial support - both funding and technical assistance - has been contributed by G8 partners towards institutional capacity-building for peace and security, the development of capacity for peace-keeping operations and of an effective network in Africa of peace training centres for military and civilian personnel involved in peace support operations. Of note is the joint support of Germany, the UK, the United States and Canada provided to the Kofi Annan International Peace Training Centre in Ghana, and to the Peace Support Training Centre in Kenya and French support for the Koulikoro Peace Training Centre in Mali, as well as EC, UK and Canadian support to the Peace and Security agenda of the African Union.
13. Effective mine action is an essential element of confidence-building to promote peace and stability in a post-conflict situation. G8 countries have begun to work more closely together, committed over US$35 million in 2002 towards mine action in Africa and have agreed to strengthen their commitment. They remain committed to ensuring that mine action in Africa reflects the needs and priorities of the governments and people in countries where landmines present an obstacle to development.
14. G8 partners have assisted in establishing continental, regional and sub-regional/national capacities for the implementation of the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and Regional Action Plans in particular in East Africa, and supported the ECOWAS Moratorium on the import of SALW. Export criteria and control of brokering activities remain high on the agenda.
security, in particular in war-affected areas is a common concern of the
G8 partners. Japan intends to give greater priority to Africa in initiatives
supported by the Trust Fund for Human Security (US$203 million). Canada's
five foreign policy program priorities for advancing human security -
support for public safety, protection of civilians, conflict prevention,
governance and accountability, and peace support operations also retain
a significant focus on Africa.
16. In strengthening institutions, governance and promoting human rights, the following are representative of the actions that are being taken:
- Substantial new funding and assistance has been provided for governance-related capacity-building including for public sector reform, the strengthening of parliaments and judicial systems and promoting the freedom of the press. For example, Canada has provided over C$40 million for such capacity building at the national and municipal levels and for parliaments. Among other G8 initiatives, Italy has organised a triennial conference with Chairmen of African Parliaments;
- The EU provides substantial support to strengthening governance and institutional capacities in Africa, in particular through it European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), that has approved new projects worth €17 million in 2002 and programmed an additional amount of €30 million in 2003 for Africa;
- Germany and the UK have encouraged African governments to accelerate the pending ratification of the African Court of Human and People's Rights. Germany and France are ready to provide support to the Court's establishment once it is ratified;
- We are highly appreciative of NEPAD efforts against corruption and intend to support them. As an example, the United States has initiated an Africa Anti-Corruption Initiative, budgeted at the level of US$36 millions over 5 years. And the UK is supporting the development of the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money-laundering group (ESAAMLG);
- France supports OHADA, the association for harmonisation of business law in Africa, which promotes the introduction and application of OHADA uniform law in 16 countries and intends to facilitate its progress;
- We support the priority given by NEPAD to the integration of women and girls into the social, political and economic sectors of society in an equitable way. Specific examples of types of programmes supported by the G8 are: girls' scholarship programmes across the continent; women's peace centres in Burundi; finance programmes for the rural women of Rwanda; initiatives on equity in education in Ethiopia; programmes to increase women's participation in grassroots development activities in Benin;
G8 is providing additional support to programmes against female genital
mutilation in West Africa.
17. Economic growth is an essential precondition for the reduction of poverty. In fostering trade, investment, economic growth and sustainable development, the following are representative of the actions taken by G8 partners.
18. A number of significant trade initiatives have been taken including the European Union's Everything But Arms; the United States' African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA); Canada's opening of its markets, tariffs and quota-free, to almost all imports from the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) effective 1 January 2003; Japan's improved duty and quota-free treatment for almost all imports from LDCs by expanding the coverage on agricultural and fishery products; and the granting by Russia of extensive tariff preferences to developing countries including LDCs.
19. In addition, the G8 gives significant support for trade-related capacity building in Africa including US$345 million by the U.S. and €373 million by the EU alone within the last two years. These programmes are complemented by support for sub-regional activities in trade facilitation (customs modernisation, norms and standards···), such as the €293 million provided by the European Union alone earmarked for regional trade and integration for sub-Saharan Africa under the 9th EDF. G8 countries intend to pursue these initiatives and to take steps to harmonise and co-ordinate them with a view to increasing their effectiveness.
20. G8 Leaders reiterate their commitment to the objective of duty-free quota-free market access for products originating from LDCs, most of which are located on the African Continent. They further reiterate their commitment to improve the effectiveness and ease of use of their respective trade preference programmes. They instruct their trade officials to explore how to implement this objective in practice.
21. Recognising that commodity market and weather related shocks are a challenge for the poorest countries generally, especially in Africa, G8 Leaders welcome the efforts underway by the World Bank Group to examine the potential for effective market-based mechanisms to help mitigate weather and commodity shocks in these countries. G8 Leaders look forward to the results of the World Bank Group's study of market-based mechanisms to mitigate the impact of these shocks, including pilot projects.
initiatives have been launched to encourage private sector investment
in Africa, such as: the European Union's €110 million investment promotion
scheme (Proinvest) and its €2.2 billion Investment Facility managed by
the European Investment Bank (EIB), the bulk of which will go to Africa;
the Franco-British initiative aimed at fostering private investment in
developing countries particularly African countries announced at the World
Summit for Sustainable Development with a joint financing of €200 million;
Canada's establishing a Canada Investment Fund for Africa with C$100 million
in government funding to be matched by the private sector; the provision
by Japan of overseas investment loans in Africa, with a target amount
of approximately US$300 million in five years for overseas investment
loans in Africa; the support provided by the US Overseas Private Investment
Corporation to more than US$700 million in investment in Sub-Saharan Africa
since 2001, and Italy's opening of a €50 million Fund to support joint
ventures between the Italian and African private sector.
24. To increase the quality and effectiveness of aid, the G8 agreed to key principles and actions in the following four areas: a) to improve the quality of poverty reduction strategies, particularly the need to better reflect a credible plan to achieve lasting growth; b) to make further steps to improve harmonisation building on the February 2003 Rome Declaration; c) to focus development assistance on measurable results; and, d) to send a clear signal on the importance they attach to good governance in considering the allocation of international assistance.
Implementing debt relief
25. Debt relief remains a priority on the G8 agenda. Since Kananaskis, 22 of the poorest countries in Africa have benefited from US$32 billion in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and excluding additional bilateral efforts. Significant progress has been achieved to fill the estimated financing gap facing the HIPC Trust Fund through pledges of US$850 million.
26. Individual debt relief efforts include:
- the cancellation by the Russian Federation in 1998-2002 of US$11,2 billion of African countries debt of which US$3,4 billion in 2002;
- Japan's commitment to cancel approximately US$4.9 billion official debts of African HIPCs under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative. Japan has also recently changed its method of debt relief measures concerning ODA debts of HIPCs and other eligible countries owed to Japan Bank for International Cooperation with a view to achieving an earlier solution to the debt problems and reducing the burden on debtor countries;
- on top of €10bn cancellation implemented before the Cologne summit, France's commitment to cancel around €10bn for HIPC African countries. Nearly half of this amount is related to additional bilateral debt forgiveness beyond the initiative's requisites that partly takes the form of debt swaps as a source of financing in support of PRSPs (the debt is cancelled to free up resources for the financing of development programmes);
- the cancellation by the United States of 100 percent of the debts contracted prior to the June 1999 Cologne Economic Summit for qualified HIPC countries. By 2004, the US estimates that it will forgive nearly $4.2 billion in debt for African countries;
- $1.5 billion by Italy;
- on top of €3.5 billion cancelled before the Cologne summit, the cancellation by Germany of €2.5 billion for HIPC African countries;
- Canada's debt service moratorium for 6 African HIPCs and its agreement to forgive all debts once countries reach their completion point, as it has done recently for Tanzania and Benin. This implies the forgiveness of over C$1.1 billion in debts owed to Canada by 14 African HIPCs; and,
- the United Kingdom's commitment by to providing 100 per cent debt relief on both aid and non-aid debts for qualifying HIPC countries, and its readiness to cancel around £2 billion in debts owed to the UK by African HIPCs.
27. Agreements on a new Paris Club approach for non-HIPC low-and middle-income countries, adopted by Finance Ministers in Deauville on 17 May 2003, open the perspective of additional progress towards lasting debt sustainability, while ensuring that debt restructuring remains the last resort.
Expanding Knowledge, Improving and Promoting Education and Expanding Digital Opportunities
28. G8 countries are providing significant additional funding for basic education, including the Education-for-All Fast Track Initiative of the World Bank which involves 13 African countries of which six have been selected for financing and capacity-building. For example:
United States has increased its annual funding (US$114 million) for education
by a total of US$200 million over five years for basic education, including
girls' scholarships, teacher training, textbooks, and education system
29. G8 countries have provided support for information-technology-based distance-learning initiatives in Africa, including the African Virtual University, and have supported the promotion of connectivity and e-governance in Africa, including through the setting-up of the Global ePolicy Response Network (ePolNET), Connectivity Africa and the Enablis private-sector initiative in support of small- and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, Italy and the Russian Federation are jointly promoting the use of communications technologies for medical treatment, and Italy is promoting, with Canada, e-governance initiatives in Mozambique and Nigeria.
partners welcome the World Summit for the Information Society as a forum
in which to discuss the ICT-for-Development agenda and help to increase
recognition of the role of ICT as a catalyst for sustainable social and
economic development around the world, and in Africa in particular.
31. G8 countries are providing additional support for African efforts to combat the effects of HIV/AIDS, build sustainable health systems and support health research. Since its inception at the Genoa Summit, G8 countries have pledged US$3.2 billion to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria over a five-year period. Of the US$1.5 billion already committed, 60 percent is targeted to Africa and 60 percent to HIV/AIDS. Germany has sought to enhance the use made by African countries of the Global Fund, through the development of training programmes and measures to improve process control, evaluation and the stronger involvement of civil society and the private sector in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
32. The United States has announced US$15 billion over five years (of which almost US$10 billion is new funds) towards the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Of the 14 countries to receive this money, 12 are in Africa. The Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria will receive $1 billion, conditional upon no United States contribution to the Global Fund causing the total US contributions to exceed 33 percent of the total amount of funds added to the Global Fund from all other sources.
33. In keeping with our pledge at Kananaskis to provide, on a fair and equitable basis, sufficient resources to eradicate polio by 2005, we have pledged an additional US$486 million and remain committed to playing our full part to ensure that the remaining funding gap is closed.
34. G8 partners are providing additional support towards the development and improvement of sustainable health systems in Africa. For example, the EC, the UK and Canada continue to give substantial support to health system strengthening with a shift from projects towards sector wide approaches and budget support; the EC made additional commitments in 2002 of €117 million and the UK increased health expenditure to an estimated £153 million in 2003. Italy is developing the Africa Network of Hospital Centres of Excellence. Through the ESTHER initiative, France, Italy and other developed countries are implementing North-South twinning of hospitals to increase the capacity of Southern hospitals to treat HIV/AIDS patients, financing more than 50 partnerships in 14 countries.
countries continue working with a view to stepping up their research and
development effort for neglected diseases that particularly affect developing
countries in Africa. As an example, France is providing ongoing support
for such research in a network of institutions both in Africa (e.g. the
Muraz Centre in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso), and in France (e.g. Institut
Pasteur). Japan has established two centres for International Parasite
Control in Kenya and Ghana for research and human resources development
in the fields of parasitic diseases control.
40 million people in Africa are at risk of starvation. This situation
derives not only from climatic conditions and natural disasters but from
more structural causes, such as chronic poverty, lack of infrastructures,
appropriate support and enabling environment for agriculture, together
with HIV/AIDS prevalence, increasing number of conflicts, poor governance
and economic management and trade related issues. Since Kananaskis, we
have committed the following amounts to address these needs: US$1.7 billion
in humanitarian emergency aid and US$1.4 billion in long term agriculture
and food security assistance for sub-Saharan Africa.
38. We support integrated approaches and programmes to identify the root causes of hunger and malnutrition and tackle them in order to prevent famine. Our support includes: increased assistance for work relating to Africa undertaken by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and support by the US and UK for the design of the African Agricultural Technology Foundation; supporting South-South cooperation on agricultural research and development including Japan's support to New Rice for Africa (NERICA); and, Italy, France and Japan's support for the FAO's special programme on food security.
partners intend to prioritise regional initiatives such as, providing
financial and technical support to the Congo Basin Forest Partnership
Initiative (CBFPI), launched at WSSD in Johannesburg to promote the sustainable
use of the resources of the largest remaining forest in Africa, which
boasts a unique bio-diversity. The CBFPI has received up to €65 million
from France, US$53 million from the United States through 2005 and €25
million from Germany.
40. To reach the Millennium development goals for water, the problems to be addressed are governance, capacity building and financing. For each, the challenge is to make sure that decision-making capability and financial means are as close as possible to the places where the real needs are, particularly in rural areas. The G8 water action plan aims at encouraging good governance in the water sector through enhanced technical assistance. It seeks to diversify financial sources and mechanisms in order to increase the overall volume of financial flows invested in the sector. It stresses the role of local authorities and women. It specifically highlights: (i) promoting good governance; (ii) utilising all financial resources; (iii) building infrastructure by empowering local authorities and communities; (iv) strengthening monitoring, assessment and research; (v) reinforcing engagement of international organisations.
41. The EU Water Initiative, launched at the WSSD Summit, will promote good governance, sustainable water resources management and stronger partnerships amongst stakeholders. Additional financial resources and flexible mechanisms are needed to meet such targets, and, in this context, the European Commission has put forward a proposal, currently being discussed with EU Member States and ACP partners, for the establishment of an EU water fund of €1 billion.
42. Accelerated access to sustainable water supply and sanitation to rural Africa is particularly needed and will be achieved through using flexible, transparent and fast-paced procedures for programme and project preparation, appraisal and implementation as well as procurement, disbursements and financial management, with a high degree of involvement of local communities. France has announced its intention to support the initial funding of the African Development Bank's Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative designed to implement these principles. Such investments are, par excellence, a field for co-operation with civil society and the G8 intends to support this involvement. Japan and the U.S. will cooperate in West Africa (Ghana, Mali, Niger and Senegal) under the Clean Water for People Initiative launched at the WSSD last September.
43. G8 partners attach particular importance to regional trans-boundary approaches to the management of shared watercourses as a means of promoting regional economic integration and of building confidence and preventing conflict. They are providing support for the Nile Basin Initiative, for the Niger River Basin authorities and for the efforts of SADC to manage the Zambezi and Limpopo river systems. Among other initiatives adopted on the occasion of the 3rd World Water Forum held in Japan, Japan and France for instance agreed to co-operate in supporting the Senegal River Basin. Germany promotes the foundation of a centre of excellence for African River Basin Organisations, which could be attached to the African Minister's Council on Water (AMCOW) in order to link up to a continent-wide network.
III. Way forward for the next years
44. G8 Personal Representatives for Africa welcome the excellent dialogue they have had with NEPAD colleagues. This marks a continuing shift towards a true partnership with Africa. Building on the visionary approach of African reformers, this partnership is producing real results. In particular:
- tangible progress in addressing the issue of conflict in Africa including a joint Africa/G8 plan to enhance African capabilities to undertake peace support operations;
- the commitment of the G8 countries to achieve a breakthrough in trade negotiations by demonstrating progress in Cancun;
- delivering on Monterrey and Kananaskis commitments, strengthening development support and increasing its quality;
- paying increased attention to the needs of the agricultural sector and for food security;
- recognising the impact of HIV/AIDS in all sectors, increasing the level of support in addressing it as well as making further steps to the eradication of polio; and,
- giving increased emphasis to making progress towards the Millennium Development Goal for water and sanitation as underscored at Johannesburg and Kyoto.
45. We are deeply appreciative of the participation in our dialogue with NEPAD partners, of representatives of other industrialised-country development partners and of relevant multilateral agencies which share our common objectives for Africa.
46. G8 Personal Representatives underscore the need for continued progress in the implementation of the Africa Action Plan if African partners are to achieve the long-term objectives set out in NEPAD.
1.2 Therefore, at its Summit in Kananaskis in June 2002, the G8 undertook to provide "technical and financial assistance so that, by 2010, African countries, the AU and regional organisations are able to engage more effectively to prevent and resolve violent conflict on the continent, and undertake peace support operations in accordance with the United Nations Charter...(Chapter 1.2 of the G8 Africa Action Plan)." G8 leaders agreed to pursue three key, inter-related actions to implement this commitment:
work with African partners to deliver a joint plan, by 2003, for the development
of African capability to undertake peace support operations, including
at the regional level;
1.3 Individual African states, the African Union, some African regional organisations, the United Nations, and individual donors (both G8 and non-G8) are already undertaking significant measures to build capacities to prevent and resolve conflicts in Africa, and to undertake peace support operations. Indeed, many African nations provide very considerable numbers of personnel (peacekeepers, observers and civilian police) to ongoing UN and African peacekeeping missions in Africa and elsewhere. The impact and effectiveness of these existing individual and collective efforts to build capacity could be multiplied by channelling them towards the realisation of a common vision. To be achievable and sustainable, this vision must be African owned and led. It must reflect a commitment on the part of Africans to invest in their future. G8 leaders have made clear their commitment to match African commitment (G8 Action Plan, Para 4).
1.4 Since the Kananaskis Summit, G8 and African partners have worked closely to develop the following plan for the development of African capability to undertake peace support operations, including at the regional level. The African Union and African regional organisations are continuing to develop the institutional framework for peace and security on the continent. Key decisions are expected in coming months, as well as over coming years. Consequently, the plan must be phased and iterative, adjusted as African institutional arrangements are established and evolve.
2.1 The elements of the joint plan must be determined by its aim or goal. The starting point for the joint plan is the "Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union" which was adopted by the African Union Assembly in Durban on 9 July 2002, but which must still be ratified by member states. Inter alia, the Protocol calls for the establishment of:
continental early warning system;
African partners have asked for support in operationalizing the Protocol.
2.2 In preparation for the AU Maputo Summit in July, African Chiefs of Defence Staff at their third meeting on May 15th - 16th in Addis Ababa considered the operationalisation of the Protocol. They adopted a Policy Framework for the Establishment of the African Standby Force and the Military Staff Committee. In particular, the policy framework provides for the establishment of an AU strategic level management capability and five regional brigades, that would enable the AU to undertake complex peace support operations in a phased approach by 2010. The AU continues to engage in discussions with African regional organisations to establish working partnerships. The UN Secretariat is continuing to providing advice to the African Union Commission on its institutional requirements to manage peace support operations, focusing on headquarters capacity and structures.
3.1 In considering the longer term vision for African peace support capabilities and in order to shape a strategic plan, it will be necessary to determine the capabilities which will be required to meet African goals. It will then be necessary to assess what capabilities exist within African states, which of those capabilities would be available to African peace support operations and what are the remaining gaps or weaknesses that might require focused attention. The process of generating standby lists could provide key information in this regard.
3.2 UN experience and the Brahimi Report on UN Peace Operations suggest that a viable multi-dimensional peace support operations capacity includes the following three basic elements:
- a legitimate, mandated political decision making authority;
- a multi-dimensional strategic management and integrated mission planning capability that includes the ability to provide direction, to plan and to provide support to field activity, as well as to potential and actual contributors (including support in the form of logistics and training); and,
- a multi-dimensional field capability that includes a rapidly deployable mission headquarters, contributions of trained and equipped troops and civilian police from Member States, and civilian/political staff available for various other mission components (e.g. human rights, rule of law and governance).
3.3 Based on this, the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations has developed a series of six scenarios outlining the particular capabilities generally required to mount different types of peace support operations: i) military advice to a political mission; ii) AU observer missions deployed alongside a UN mission; iii) stand alone AU observer mission; iv) AU peacekeeping force (traditional peacekeeping or preventive deployment); v) AU peacekeeping force (complex multidimensional mission); and vi) AU intervention mission. These scenarios provide a basis to identify required capabilities, and determine available capabilities, weaknesses and gaps. This could assist in considering further elements for incorporation in the joint plan.
3.4 Many African nations have trained and experienced peacekeeping troops. However, a strategic management capacity for multidimensional peace support operations is still embryonic within the AU and within sub-regional organisations. To be effective, a multidimensional peace support operation must take account of humanitarian assistance needs, early peace building tasks (including restoration of the rule of law) and reconstruction needs, all of which require civilian experts. The development of this management capacity will take time and considerable, sustained resources to develop. Consequently, a primary focus in the joint plan on developing a multi-dimensional field capability is a reasonable first step.
4.1 It will take time and considerable resources to create, and establish the conditions to sustain, the complete range of capabilities needed to fully undertake complex peace support operations and their related activities. Africa will need partners as it makes progress towards acquiring the capabilities required to meet its long term vision. The UN has well developed strategic management and planning capabilities for peace support operations, and is willing to make these capabilities available on an ad hoc basis to African institutions. To do this, the UN is discussing arrangements with the AU and African regional organisations to enable them to partner with UN planning and strategic management capabilities. The UN is also providing advice and training to African states and regional organisations, as well as support for regional and national training centres. The UN also helps to match donors and African troop contributing countries in need of equipment to undertake peace support operations.
4.2 In addition, the Multinational Standby High Readiness Brigade for UN Operations (SHIRBRIG) is a possible model for the development of an African regional or sub-regional standby brigade. Possibilities of secondments to the SHIRBRIG Planning Element in Copenhagen, expert consultations about its operating methods and technical assistance (such as the planning assistance SHIRBRIG is currently providing to ECOWAS for the potential mission in the Côte d'Ivoire) can be considered.
5.1 The African vision for its peace and security infrastructure is a work in progress. In recognition of this, G8 and African partners will work, step by step, to develop key building blocks that will help to channel existing resources more effectively in support of a longer term vision. Without prejudging decisions to be made in coming months and years by the African Union on the operationalisation of its Protocol on peace and security (notably with respect to standby capacities), early building blocks that have been identified include:
2) the development of capacities to provide humanitarian, security and reconstruction support in the context of complex peace support operations;
3) the establishment of a continental network of regional observation and monitoring (early warning) centres, linked electronically to a centre in the AU;
4) the development of institutional capacities at the continental and regional level to prevent conflict through mediation, facilitation, observation and other strategies;
5) the establishment of priority regional logistic depots to enhance existing capabilities;
6) the standardisation of training doctrines, manuals, curricula and programs for both civilian (including police) and military personnel for use in national and regional peacekeeping training schools and centres of excellence, and support for IT options to join up training centres within Africa and with international peacekeeping centres;
7) enhanced capacity in regional peace training centres;
8) continued joint exercises at the regional level;
9) current regional peacekeeping initiatives, such as the mission in Burundi and the ECOWAS mission for Côte d'Ivoire; and,
10) consensus building in the OECD Development Assistance Committee to consider as Official Development Assistance a more inclusive range of assistance provided to enhance capacities to undertake peace support operations and related activities.
5.2 Each of these proposed building blocks needs to be broken out into phased component parts to target efforts of all concerned. This work needs to be undertaken by concerned African partners, supported by the UN and experts from donor countries already active/or seeking to be active in each component.
6.1 Many G8 partners, and indeed other donors, currently have extensive, ongoing programs with African nations and institutions to support the development of African capacities to undertake complex peace support operations and related activities. There is a need to enhance coordination among donors and with African partners to avoid duplication and ensure cost-effectiveness. This joint plan is one means to help channel individual and collective efforts towards the achievement of the African vision for its capacity to prevent, manage and resolve conflict, and consolidate peace. Complementary programs and partnerships among donors, focused on clearly identified African priorities, can help achieve tangible results.
6.2 Consultation among donors on their military and civilian programs to enhance peace support capabilities in situ with their African partners is the most effective means of identifying priorities, developing transparency and finding synergies. Such consultations could take place regularly among resident players in capitals where African continental and regional peace and security institutions are located, as well as in the capitals of African peace keeping nations.
6.3 It is proposed that this broad process of consultation be centred on an annual consultation, focused on peace and security issues, between the AU, all interested donors (not only G8) and African peace and security institutions at the continental and regional level (such as peacekeeping training centres). This consultation could provide an ongoing mechanism to review the joint plan and its implementation. The consultation would also provide an opportunity to review broad security sector reform activities, which are a foundation stone for peace support capacities.
6.4 To complement these consultations, it has also been proposed to generate a database of information on donor activity to support the development of African capacities to undertake complex peace support operations and related activities. While this could in time be housed at the African Union Commission, G8 and African partners expressed interest in the UN's offer to build on the global data base on peacekeeping training assistance (originally created in 1996 and overseen by the Training and Evaluation Service of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations) by creating a website with links to the websites of all donors describing their activities in peace and security in Africa and providing contact information.
7. Specific recommendations for near term action
7.1 The AU host (with donor support) an annual consultation on the enhancement of African capacity to engage in peace support operations, between the AU, all interested donors (not only G8) and African peace and security institutions at the continental and regional level (i.e. peacekeeping training centres).
7.2 As required and appropriate, a series of experts meetings be convened by the AU with interested donors (drawing on embassy staff of G8 and non-G8 countries) to develop detailed strategies (identifying benchmarks and milestones) for each of the building blocks identified in this plan that would enable donors to target their individual and collective assistance.
7.3 Support be provided to enable the UN to continue to provide advice to the AU on the establishment of its peace and security institutions, and their relationship to regional organisations.
7.4 Support be provided to enable the AU and regional organisations to learn more about SHIRBRIG, which is a possible model for developing the African Standby Force.
7.5 The UN be encouraged to develop arrangements with the AU and regional organisations that would enable them to partner with UN planning and strategic management capabilities. Discussions among international donors and the UN be encouraged on options to address the financing needs of African-led peace support missions.
7.6 Representatives of G8 countries invite other concerned donors and African interlocutors to establish regular consultations on support for African peace and security initiatives in capitals where African continental and regional peace and security institutions are located (to be determined following consultations with the African side), as well as in the capitals of African peace keeping nations.
7.7 The UN's offer to create a website with links to the websites of all donors describing their activities in peace and security in Africa be considered.
Source : 2003 G8 Summit Documents