Island, Georgia (June 10, 2004)
are united in our belief that famine is preventable in the 21"
century. Famine, food insecurity, and malnutrition have many
complex causes, and defeating them will require a global partnership
between the governments of affected countries, donors, international
institutions, the private sector, and non-governmental organizations
(NGOs). We renew our commitment to help build this partnership,
particularly in Africa, where more than 200 million people remain
threatened by famine or food insecurity.
support fully the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)
and the principles and goals set out in the Comprehensive Africa
Agriculture Development Programme. In particular, we applaud
the African Union Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security,
in which African leaders committed to allocating at least 10%
of national budgetary resources for agriculture and rural development.
Our efforts to fight famine, hunger and food insecurity are
a demonstration of our commitment to achieve internationally
recognized development goals, including the goals of halving
by 2015 the number of people who suffer from hunger and from
the Evian Famine Action Plan, the G8 has made significant progress
in coordinating our emergency assistance efforts in the Horn
of Africa and improving our famine early warning capabilities.
We have agreed on a joint response to the crucial problem of
promoting broadbased rural development and raising agricultural
productivity in food insecure areas. To build on this work,
we have agreed to undertake three new initiatives within the
framework of the G8 Africa and Famine Action Plans:
the Cycle of Famine in the Horn of Africa: Along with the World
Bank and other donors, we have agreed to support a new Ethiopian
Government framework that offers a real chance to break the
cycle of famine in that country and can serve as a point of
reference for other countries. We will work with the New Coalition
for Food Security to offer unified support for the Government's
reform program to realize the Government's goal of attaining
food security for five million chronically food insecure people
by 2009. We will support land reform by funding the rollout
of a land user rights system throughout Ethiopia by 2006. We
will expand our support for rural infrastructure development
to help the Government meet or exceed the road building goals
set out in its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). We will
work in a coordinated fashion to develop agricultural markets
and facilitate regional economic integration.
stand ready to help other countries in the Horn that are willing
to make a political commitment to develop comprehensive food
security and famine prevention programs. We encourage Eritrea
to complete its interim PRSP in a manner which would serve as
a basis for a concrete dialogue with its development partners
on initiatives to support a transition to a more food secure
future. A sustained commitment to policy reform by the Eritrean
Government will be essential to deliver on the promise of this
Improving Worldwide Emergency Assessment and Response Systems: We
will work closely with the World Food Program (WFP), Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO), other UN agencies, and leading
international NGOs to continue to improve global emergency assessment
and agricultural information systems in order to estimate more
accurately food aid and non-food needs and enable emergency
assistance to reach the areas and groups that need it most.
During 2004, we will support field testing of improvements to
emergency needs assessment systems in two Southern African countries.
We urge the international community to meet fully the emergency
assistance needs, including non-food items, in the Horn of Africa
and other famine-prone regions, and will do our part to achieve
Agricultural Productivity in Food Insecure Countries and Promoting
Rural Development, Especially in Africa: We applaud the renewed
attention by donors, international institutions, NGOs, and developing
countries to these crucial issues, in particular the significant
increase in the agricultural and rural development activities
of the World Bank and the FAO and the innovative irrigation
and agricultural technology programs financed by the International
Fund for Agricultural Development.
will focus our institutional capacity building to help food
insecure countries, particularly in Africa, develop agricultural
science and technology, raise agriculture productivity, and
meet international food safety standards. We will strengthen
local and regional agricultural markets and work with governments
to improve access for poor farmers to productive resources such
as land, credit, agricultural inputs and services, and technology.
We will encourage private investment, foster sub-regional growth,
promote the use of geo-spatial data, and explore faminerisk
schemes. To promote agricultural science and research, we will
enhance institutional capacity to utilize science and technology
through links between universities. Together we will advance
a vision of a "second green revolution" adapted to African conditions
that would raise agricultural productivity, promote hardier
crops for healthier people, and make food insecurity in Africa
a thing of the past.
attached Action Plan provides details on these initiatives.
THE CYCLE OF FAMINE IN THE HORN OF AFRICA, RAISING AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTIVITY, AND PROMOTING RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN FOOD INSECURE
COUNTRIES: A G8 ACTION PLAN
I. Breaking the Cycle of Famine and Increasing Agricultural
Productivity in the Horn of Africa
a population of almost 150 million, recurring conflict, and
an average per capita annual income of less than $220, the Horn
of Africa presents a compelling case for attention. For more
than two decades, nearly half of Ethiopia's 68 million people
have experienced some degree of food insecurity and malnutrition.
Approximately five million are "chronically food insecure",
i.e., unable at some time in any year to secure an adequate
supply of food for survival. Millions more face hunger or food
insecurity in Eritrea, Somalia, and the Sudan.
Evian, G8 aid agencies and other donors have worked closely
under Ethiopian Government leadership to design and support
a "productive safety net." The safety net will protect the assets
of chronically food-insecure families, enhance the functioning
of food markets, and support urgent rural investments. Within
three to five years, this safety net should provide an alternative
to emergency assistance for the Ethiopians who are chronically
completion of Eritrea's interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
could offer a basis for a concrete dialogue with its development
partners on initiatives to support a transition to a more food
secure future. A sustained commitment to policy reform by the
Eritrean Government will be essential to deliver on the promise
of this paper. G8 members are prepared to support such a commitment
by strengthening assistance to projects targeting agricultural
development in Eritrea, including in the area of water distribution.
members will take the following actions in close coordination
with each other, governments in the region, and all relevant
will work with the New Coalition for Food Security in Ethiopia
to give unified support to the Government's nascent structural
reform effort. G8 and other donors have worked with the Government
of Ethiopia to develop an alternative to emergency food aid
which should cover more than five million people over three
years. We will work with the Government and other donors to
realize the Government's goal of attaining food security for
five million chronically food insecure people by 2009.
will cooperate closely with the Ethiopian Government to address
the problems of the most vulnerable groups. Our aid agencies
will monitor closely the implementation of the safety net and
will coordinate on effective approaches for targeting populations
will help accelerate land reform and strengthen land tenure
for all Ethiopians, including vulnerable groups, by supporting
the Government's plan to establish a system of user rights inthe
context of its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). Working
with all stakeholders, G8 countries and other donors will fund
the rollout of a transparent user right system in two states
in 2004, three more in 2005, and a final two states in 2006.
Land reform will increase incentives for farmers to invest in
their land and increase agricultural productivity.
will expand our support for rural infrastructure development
in the Horn, including social infrastructure, soil fertility,
and water management programs. In Ethiopia, this support will
take place under the safety net program and will focus on farm-to-market
or feeder roads. We will work with the World Bank to increase
the number of activities under its Public-Private Infrastructure
Advisory Facility. Through these collective efforts, we aim
to help the Government meet or exceed the road building goals
set out in its PRSP. Developing rural infrastructure helps mitigate
food insecurity by connecting food surplus and food deficit
regions and enabling the Government and donors to more easily
access people in need. Assisting the health and education sectors
and building the capacity of institutions and civil society
organizations brings a multiplier effect to the wider economy.
will unleash the power of markets through cash-for-work and
cash-for-relief programs and working with business associations
and cooperatives to expand private participation in market development.
Our aid agencies will work with the World Bank and the Government
of Ethiopia to complete an Action Plan for improving market
and trade infrastructure by June 2005. This plan should include
trade information systems, building private sector trade capacity,
and access to micro-finance and rural credit.
will work to expand access for Ethiopian farmers to improved
agricultural technologies and add value to farmers' production
through innovations in processing, packaging, and shipping.
will facilitate regional economic integration and debt relief
to mitigate threats of famine and strengthen rural economies
as has occurred in other regions of Africa. We will coordinate
our trade capacity building assistance to support Ethiopia's
full integration into the COMESA Free Trade Agreement as soon
as feasible and stand ready to assist Ethiopia in its negotiations
to join the WTO.
we pursue these initiatives we will continue to improve donor
coordination so as to contribute to the goal of breaking the
cycle of famine in the Horn.
Improving Worldwide Emergency Assessment and Response Systems
Emergency assistance, both food and non-food, continues to play a
crucial, short-term role in combating food insecurity. In recent
years, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan have been among
the world's largest recipients of emergency food assistance.
Although harvests improved in 2003-04, substantial emergency
assistance will still be required for Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia,
and Sudan, in part because of political instability and displacement
of populations due to conflicts.
will monitor closely the WFP's estimates of food aid needs in
the Horn of Africa.
with other donors, we will do our part to ensure that emergency
needs, including food, are met.
aid agencies are collaborating on efforts to harmonize methodology
for collecting data on national nutrition and mortality levels
and responding effectively. When operational, these initiatives
will give donors reliable new tools to target more quickly and
accurately emergency assistance.
individually and collectively, G8 members will take the following
national efforts to improve data collection and monitoring systems
and enhance capacity to respond to emergency food crisis in
line with the NEPAD initiative on Stimulating an Agriculture
Renaissance in Support of Food Security in Africa presented
at the April 2004 meeting of the African Partnership Forum in
to work closely with the WFP and Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) to improve global food emergency assessment methodologies
and response systems. G8 countries will support the piloting
of the improved assessment process in two Southern African countries
the International Food Policy and Research Institute's "Strategic
Analysis Knowledge Support System" for agricultural and market
improvement of international needs assessment initiatives such
as the WFP/FAO common approach and the Standardized Monitoring
and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) Initiative.
The G8 will support further activities to improve needs assessment
and monitoring of famine and food security. This will include
the establishment of a multi-partner experts' panel to review
standards of practice for vulnerability assessments and food
security and the development of online information systems to
disseminate information on vulnerable areas, needs assessments,
and the impact of assistance operations.
will support the development of regional strategies for disaster
prevention and emergency management covering policy instruments,
institutional responses and safety mechanisms.
possible and appropriate, we will consider the local or regional
purchase of relief and food items.
will work to ensure coherence among our policies, including
development, trade and agricultural policies that may affect
famine, agricultural productivity and rural development in food
will work to ensure that the outcome of the re-negotiation of
the Food Aid Convention promotes good food aid practices and
improved assessments based on the needs of beneficiaries in
food insecure countries.
will work with other governments and stakeholders to implement
the recommendations of the World Food Summit and the World Food
Summit: Five Years Later.
improve early warning systems, we will share technologies and
data to develop food security maps and improve donor and government
capacity to collect geo-spatial data.
Boosting Agricultural Productivity and Rural Development in
Food Insecure Countries, Especially in Africa
welcome the high priority Africans place on increasing agricultural
productivity as evidenced by the recent, successful Africa 2020
Conference in Uganda. Raising agricultural productivity and
promoting broad-based rural development are two of the long-term
keys to reducing the threat of malnutrition and child mortality,
increasing incomes, and stimulating overall economic growth
in food insecure countries. These challenges are multifaceted,
requiring reforms of domestic agricultural, social, economic,
and development policies with the full participation of civil
society. They demand integrating food and nutrition insecure
countries into the world economy, decentralizing decision making,
expanding access to credit, empowering women, harnessing the
power of science and technology, unleashing the power of markets,
and improving rural economic and social infrastructure.
strongly support the significant increase in the World Bank's
agricultural and rural development activities, including lending,
agricultural research and the rural development strategy "Reaching
the Rural Poor." We encourage the World Bank to include an assessment
of recipient country agricultural policy performance in Country
Assistance Strategies where agriculture is a significant economic
sector, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We commit to supporting
efforts by Africans to create a positive and sustainable per
capita agricultural output growth rate in Sub Saharan Africa
members are supporting a range of programs to promote agricultural
productivity and rural development in African and other countries.
Our activities are built on the clear lessons of the past, including
the importance of a transparent and supportive domestic policy
environment; building capacity to implement agricultural and
development policy; regional cooperation in support of agricultural
growth; participation of all stakeholders; coordination between
and a longterm commitment by donors; and local ownership of
individually and collectively, G8 members will:
our institutional capacity building, including in the field
of trade facilitation, to help food insecure countries, particularly
in Africa, develop agricultural science and technology, raise
agriculture productivity, and meet international food safety
standards. We will examine the potential of improving education
and literacy for farmers to enable them to better utilize existing
agricultural technology and equipment.
in cooperation with the AU, NEPAD, and other relevant organizations
a publicprivate forum in the second half of 2004 aimed at offering
concrete solutions to the challenges of raising agricultural
productivity, especially for the rural poor. We will explore
ways of improving farming techniques and raising yields through
improving investment climates, disseminating appropriate and
practically usable agricultural technology, identifying research
needs, infrastructure and knowledge bottlenecks, and trade capacity
Establish food and nutrition security scholars programs to expand
training in agricultural science and technology for researchers,
scientists, and policy makers in developing countries. These
programs will address the critical role science and technology
plays in raising agricultural productivity in an environmentally
sustainable way consistent with local needs.
partnership relationships between agricultural institutes and
agriculture departments in our universities and their counterparts
in food-insecure countries, including by linking national programs
into sub-regional and regional networks.
work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research (CGIAR) and others that will channel more effectively
resources allocated to research and development of drought,
pest, and disease-resistant staple crops for use in developing
countries. We will also support initiatives on staple Africa
food crops, including the Pan Africa Cassava Initiative, the
Global Cassava Partnership and the Pan Africa Nerica initiative.
These initiatives, carried out in a responsible manner and respecting
biodiversity protection, should result in "hardier crops for
developing countries in producing and gaining access to geo-spatial
information for land-use planning, land cover analysis, agricultural
assessments, and environmental monitoring.
increased use of local and regional commercial markets to meet
food needs in famine prone countries and reduce dependence on
the organization of community level associations, including
agricultural cooperatives, to provide farmers in food insecure
areas with up-to-date information on government policies, useful
technologies, and micro finance options.
Coordinate in supporting the African Forum for Agricultural Research
(FARA) and related Subregional Research Organizations (SROs)
in East, West and Southern Africa to facilitate the involvement
of all stakeholders in identifying research priorities for stimulating
agricultural growth and tackling food and nutrition insecurity.
ongoing initiatives and help develop a global consensus on the
core building blocks of ricultural productivity that includes
increasing yields, secure land tenure, functioning markets,
sustainable management of natural resources, and social equity.
with the AU, NEPAD, regional economic organizations, business
groups, and relevant international institutions to review and
improve the investment environment in Africa and promote private
sector links and development.
Encourage CGIAR to increase its efforts in Africa, and increase funding
for challenge programs on "Water and Food" and those others
which benefit Africa. Develop at least three new projects with
the African Agricultural Technology Foundation. We will also
encourage IFAD efforts to improve the access of African farmers
to water on a sustainable basis.
Implement programs of support for regional and national programs
aimed at tackling food insecurity and vulnerability in Southern
Africa by 2005.
continued exploration of potential market-based famine risk-insurance
mechanisms, taking into account work done by the World Bank